Was The New Economic Policy the most important development in the Communist Revolution in Russia in the period 1917-1945?

The New Economic Policy was very significant because In early 1921 a movement of opposition towards War Communism, called the ‘Workers' Opposition' arose with the Bolshevik Party. The movement triggered a wave of strikes by Petrograd workers, who demanded freedom for the peasants as well as themselves from the Bolsheviks and the Communist revolution. Lenin, the Bolsheviks leader, believed that a Communist revolution could only be achieved in Russia by the Bolsheviks on the public's behalf. Therefore, Lenin took initiative and choice a pragmatic approach to avoid the scandal and embarrassment of another openly challenging the government and the Communist revolution in the NEP. This was a key part in the Bolsheviks consolidated their power because the restoration of trading links with capitalist countries meaning Russia could now import machinery and raw materials helping the rebuild of the economy and Russia's relations with capitalist countries.Also, the irrational amount of suffering that war communism brought Russia makes it understandable why Lenin took a pragmatic approach as short term privatisation was the essential key to help maintain the communist regime.On the other hand, it can be argued the NEP only showed the world that Capitalism is substantial for a healthy economy showing that NEP was not the most important development in the Communist revolution. I believe that it was, in fact, Collectivisation that was the most important development in the Communist revolution in Russia.

1928, Stalin began his policy of collectivisation.The introduction of collectivisation was due to the Russian's forms were small and underproductive. This led to food shortage and poverty. Stalin used the mechanisation of agriculture and the creation of larger forms and release a large amount of surplus labour and created great profit.Coinciding with my judgement because collectivisation shows it's important development in the communist revolution because Russia had suffered from chronic food shortages and famines for years even in the best years of the NEP. However, collectivisation proved it was highly successful because, by 1933, 70% of peasant households had been collectivised, rising to100% by 1941 and defeating the peasants that resisted through terror. By 1933 seizures of grain rose to 22.6 million tonnes ensuring that enough food was sent to the cities to feed the industrial workers, ending shortage and rations.This has a tremendous amount of significance as it helped improve the terrible living conditions that characterised the previous decade. Another, success to prove it's greater importance than NEP is the collectivisation. As it was a political success and provided a great alternative to the NEP as it provided a socialist way of farming the land. Collectivisation strengthened the support of the revolution in the countryside and the urban workers, as they saw the saw the socialisation of the land as a key part of the revolution's way out of poverty. The significance of this factor is so great because of the appeal collectivisation gave the Communist revolution especially to the majority of people who were disillusioned with the capitalism of the NEP.

However, the most significant of collectivisation was the horrendous amount of human cost the operation brought. This is because, in order to release enough grain for export and feed the industrial worker, state procurement had to increase resetting a widespread of starvation in the countryside. Yet, all historians agree that the impact of Stalin's policies for the land was horrendous ethically, but in the terms of developing the Communist revolution in Russia, the aim of increasing grain exports, gaining control of the peasantry and marginalising the right wing of the party was met. Therefore collectivisation was an undoubtedly a success.

The next factor that challenges the NEP in being the most important factor in developing the Communist revolution is the Five Year Plans. The Five Year Plans were designed to break away from the NEP, with its heavily capitalist elements and how it would bring rapid industrialisation to modernise the economy and brings a true socialist industrial state. The FYP had arguably greater significance to the NEP in developing the Russian revolution. This is because under the NEP industrial production, through improving, remained
disappointing to many in the Communist party.