Carl Jung


Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) was a son of a minister in Switzerland. He

was born on July 26, in the small village of Kesswil on Lake Constance. He

was named after his grandfather, a professor of medicine at the University

of Basel. He was the oldest child and only surviving son of a Swiss Reform

pastor. Two brothers died in infancy before Jung was born. Jung\'s mother

was a neurotic and often fought with his father. Father was usually lonely

and very irritable. When the child could not take his mother\'s depressions

and his parents\' fights, he sought refuge in the attic, where he played

with a wooden mannikin. Carl was exposed to death early in life, since his

father was a minister and attended many funerals, taking his son with him.

Also, Jung saw many fishermen get killed in the waterfalls and also many

pigs get slaughtered. When he was eleven, he went to a school in Basel, met

many rich people and realized that he was poor, compared to them. He liked

to read very much outside of class and detested math and physical education

classes. Actually, gym class used to give him fainting spells (neurosis)

and his father worried that Jung wouldn\'t make a good living because of his

spells. After Carl found out about his father\'s concern, the faints

suddenly stopped, and Carl became much more studious.


He had to decide his profession. His choices included archeology,

history, medicine, and philosophy. He decided to go into medicine, partly

because of his grandfather. Carl went to the University of Basel and had

to decide then what field of medicine he was going to go into. After

reading a book on psychiatry, he decided that this was the field for him,

although psychiatry was not a respectable field at the time. Jung became

an assistant at the Burgholzli Mental hospital in Zurich, a famous medical

hospital. He studied under Eugen Bleuler, who was a famous psychiatrist

who defined schizophrenia. Jung was also influenced by Freud with whom he

later became good friends. Freud called him his crown-prince. Their

relationship ended when Jung wrote a book called "Symbols of

Transformation." Jung disagreed with Freud\'s fundamental idea that a symbol

is a disguised representation of a repressed wish. I will go into that

later. After splitting up with Freud, Jung had a 2 year period of

non-productivity, but then he came out with his "Psychological Types," a

famous work. He went on several trips to learn about primitive societies

and archetypes to Africa, New Mexico to study Pueblo Indians, and to India

and Ceylon to study eastern philosophy. He studied religious and occult

beliefs like I Ching, a Chinese method of fortune telling. Alchemy was

also one of his interests. His book, "Psychology and Alchemy," published

in 1944 is among his most important writings. He studied what all this

told about the human mind. One of his methods was word association, which

is when a person is given a series of words and asked to respond to them.

Abnormal response or hesitation can mean that the person has a complex

about that word.


His basic belief was in complex or analytical psychology. The goal is

psychosynthesis, or the unification and differentiation of the psyche

(mind). He believed that the mind started out as a whole and should stay

that way. That answered structural, dynamic, developmental questions. I

will attempt to restate the major ideas and terms in this book in a

pseudo-outline. It will make the understanding a bit more clear.





Jung said that there are three levels of mind. Conscious, Personal

Subconscious, and Collective Subconscious. The conscious level serves four

functions. The following are the functions of people (not types!):


A. Thinking: connecting ideas in ordered strings.

B. Feeling: evaluating ideas upon feelings about them.

C. Sensing: wanting to get experiences.

D. Intuiting: following unfounded ideas.


A & B are called rational, and C & D are called irrational. If they

don\'t make much sense, they will be explained in more detail after

explaining Types.


There are also 2 classes of conscious behavior:


A. Introverted, which are people who are content to stay within their

own psyche. They base their whole life on analyzing their mind.


B. Extroverted, which are people who seek out other people. They care

about the outside world and adjust to it.


Also, one of the two classes usually dominates, and rarely does one see

an individual with perfectly balanced classes of behavior. Jung said that

an ego is a filter from the senses to the conscious mind. All ego

rejections go to the personal subconscious. The ego is highly selective.

Every day we are