Frederick Winslow Taylor: Business Management




Frederick Winslow Taylor: Business Management


Lenoir Community College
Frederick Winslow Taylor
Business Management
David Mercer
Tuesday, February 04, 1997

CONTENTS

I. Introduction......................6
II. The Younger Years.................7
III Midvale Steel Company.............n
IV Inventions........................n
V. Pig-Iron Handling Experiments.....n
VI. Shoveling Experiments ............n
VII. Conclusion .......................n

APPENDI................................n
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY..................n

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
1. Illustration 1.................n
2. Illustration 2.................n
3. Illustration 3.................n
4. Illustration 4.................n
5. Illustration 5.................n

LIST OF TABLES
1. Differential Piece Rate Wages..n
2. Table 2........................n
3. Table 3........................n
4. Table 4........................n
5. Table 5........................n

Introduction

This paper is in response to the assignment for a paper and short speech
concerning a person with relevant contributions to the world of management.
Frederick Taylor is affectionately referred to as the “Father of Scientific
Management.” The modern systems of manufacturing and management would not be
the examples of efficiency that they are today, without the work of Taylor.
Frederick Taylor was instrumental in bringing industry out of the dark ages by
beginning to revolutionize the way work was approached. Taylor was able to
increase wages, productivity and reduce per piece costs at the same time.
Taylor\'s work was eventually adopted in a wide array of applications. Taylor\'s
ideas had a significant influence on the industrial life of all modernized
countries. Even Lenin went as far as to publish an article in Pravda , “Raising
the Productivity of Labour,” based on the writings of Taylor. Thus Taylor
changed the way the world conducted business. Taylor\'s work was an extension
of technology. It was a marriage of human work and technology. His Priniciples
of Scientifiic Management was conceived to be free of value judgement.
The Younger Years

Frederick W. Taylor was born into a well-to-do family in Philadelphia in
1856 . His family was not wealthy , but they were well exposed to the high
culture of the local society. Growing up it was expected that Taylor would
study to become an attorney. Taylor attended Phillips-Exeter Academy. He was a
devout student, doing very well with his studies. To achieve good grades,
Taylor studied many long hours. It was quite unfortunate that Taylor was to
miss Harvard Law School due to bad eyes that doctors attrributed to studying in
the poor light of a kerosene lamp. In later years it was realized that his eye
problem was actually caused by stress, as it improved after he left Phillips.
Taylor moved back home after graduating from Phillips. He realized that he
should take up a trade and got a job as an apprentice machinist and pattern
maker. Having spent four years learning his trade, Taylor got a job as a yard
laborer at Midvale Steel Company.
Taylor realized that at this point he needed to continue his education.
He convinced the people at Stevens Institute of Technology to allow him to
attend classes long distance. He would study in his spare time in Philadelphia
and go to the school in New Jersey to take his exams. In June of 1883, Taylor
graduated with a Mechanical Engineering degree. He subsequently joined the
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME).

Midvale Steel Company

The Midvale Steel Company was part of the post Civil War expansion of
industrialized Philadelphia. They made steel railroad tires. Due to poor
management, Midvale failed in 1873. Fortunately for Taylor, the company was sold
and prospered under the direction of the new owners. There were two reasons for
the success of the company. The first was that the company was able to improve
their scientific processes. The second reason was they were to receive
contracts to manufacture Naval gun forgings. By the 1890\'s, Midvale was one of
the countries largest defense contracters. The company was in period of rapid
growth. Taylor advanced quickly at Midvale. In eight years he would be promoted
from ordinary laborer through the ranks of time keeper, machinist, gang boss,
foreman, assistant engineer to chief engineer of the plant. Taylor was promoted
to gang boss due to the business turn around and the subsequent influx of orders.
As gang boss Taylor was well aware that the workers could be producing at much
higher levels than they were. As Taylor tried to increase production, he met a
lot of resistance from the workers. This fight to increase production gave
Frederick Taylor his first look at the unsystemized managerial methods
commonplace in industry. Typically the fly by the seat of the pants approach
was used to manage manufacturing facilities. Taylor realized that there was a
scientific approach to technical problems. Yet, the current approach to dealing
with production problems such as worker behavior was destructive. There