Learning Objectives

AFTER READING THIS CHAPTER, THE STUDENT WILL BE ABLE TO:
. Describe how much physical activity is recommended for developing health
and fitness.
. Identify the components of physical fitness and how each component
affects wellness.
. Explain the goal of physical training and the basic principles of
training.
. Describe the principles involved to design a well-rounded exercise
program.
. List the steps that can be taken to make an exercise program safe,
effective, and successful.


Extended Lecture Outline

INTRODUCTION

Although people vary greatly in their levels of physical fitness, everyone
can ultimately achieve the benefits from regular physical activity based on
sound physical training principles.

I. Physical Activity and Exercise for Health and Fitness

A. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently reported
the following statistics about the physical activity levels of adult
Americans.

1. About ________ participate in some leisure-time physical
activity.

2. Between 1988 and 2009, leisure time decreased by nearly 6%. About
________ of Americans participate in ______________________________
physical activity.

3. People with higher levels of education exercise more often than
people with less education

4. People living in large urban areas are less active than those living
in smaller communities.

B. Physical Activity on a Continuum
Physical activity is:
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____

1. Exercise is _____________________________________________________
intended to improve or maintain a level of fitness.

a. Level of fitness depends on the following:

-Physiological factors, i.e. heart's ability to pump blood

-Genetics

-One's own behavior

2. Increasing Physical Activity to Improve Health and Wellness

a. Healthy adults should perform ________ minutes of moderate
intensity aerobic exercise or at least _______ minutes of
vigorous intensity exercise per week.

b. Increasing volume and intensity of the exercise (300
minutes a week) will result in additional health benefits.

c. Moderate to high intensity _____________exercises should
be included at least twice a week to promote muscular strength
and endurance.

d. Avoid inactivity, since this will contribute to a
sedentary lifestyle and increased risk of obesity.

3. Increasing Physical Activity to Manage Weight

a. ________ of Americans are carrying extra weight. Based on this
information, recommendations are as follows from the American College of
Sports Medicine:

- GENERAL HEALTH: perform 150 minutes of moderate intensity
aerobic exercise or 75 minutes of vigorous intensity
exercise per week.

- INCREASED HEALTH BENEFITS: 300 minutes of moderate
intensity or 150 minutes of vigorous activity per week.

- MAINTENANCE: _________ minutes of moderate activity per
day.


- MUSCULAR STRENGTH/ENDURANCE: 2 non-consecutive days of
resistance work that focuses on large muscle groups of the
upper and lower body.

- FLEXIBILITY: range-of-motion exercises at least ____ times per week.

C. How Much Physical Activity Is Enough?

1. The amount of activity is based on an individual's health status and
goals.

2. Regular physical activity promotes health and can protect one from
chronic diseases.

3. For better health and well-being, participate in a structured
exercise program that develops all areas of fitness. Any increases will
improve your health and well-being.

4. Fit people have more energy and better body control.

5. Regardless if you like sports, you need physical energy and stamina
in one's daily life.



II. Health-Related Components of Physical Fitness

II. Health-Related Components of Physical Fitness

A. _____________________________________

1. The ability to perform prolonged large-muscle dynamic exercise
at moderate-to-high levels of intensity.

2. It is a central component of fitness that trains the heart and
lungs, making them functionally stronger and more efficient.

B. _____________________________________

1. Muscular strength is the amount of force a muscle can exert with
a single maximum effort.

2. Adequate muscular strength is important for performance of daily
tasks and body alignment; an increase in muscle mass means a higher
rate of metabolism and faster energy use.

3. Maintaining strength and muscle mass is also vital for healthy
aging.

C. _____________________________________

1. Muscular endurance is the ability to resist fatigue and sustain
a given level of muscle tension. This allows the muscles to
contract longer over a period of time.

2. It is important for good posture, injury prevention, and
performance of physical tasks.

D. _____________________________________

1. Flexibility is the ability of joints to move through their full
range of motion.

2. Poor flexibility can lead to stiffness, misalignment of posture,
and pain.

E. ______________________________________

1. Body composition is defined as the proportion of fat and fat-
free mass (muscle, bone, and water) in a body.

2. Healthy body composition reduces the risk of heart disease,
high blood pressure,